Gjøa (oljefelt)

Koordinater:

Gjøa er et olje- og gassfelt på blokkene 35/9 og 36/7 i Nordsjøen. Gjøa ligger ca. 65 km sørvest for Florø, om lag 45 km vest for Sognefjorden og 70 km nordøst for Troll B.

Utvinningstillatelse 153 ble tildelt i 1988 med Norsk Hydro som operatør. I 2003 solgte Hydro sin andel til daværende Gaz de France Norge AS (GdFN) where to buy water glass, nåværende GDF SUEZ E&P Norge AS. Som en del av Olje- og energidepartementets (OED) godkjennelse i februar 2004 av GdFNs overtagelse av Hydros eierandel, ble det vedtatt at Statoil skulle være operatør i utbyggingsfasen og GdFN overta operatørskapet i driftsfasen. GDF SUEZ overtok offisielt operatørskapet 25. november 2010, og ble med dette driftsoperatør for et felt på norsk sokkel for første gang. Statoil vil imidlertid fullføre bore- og kompletteringsprogrammet etter operatørskiftet.

Produksjonsinnretningen er en halvt nedsenkbar plattform. Det er ikke boreanlegg ombord. Olje og gass vil bli ført i rørledninger fra undervannsanleggene til Gjøa, for prosessering. Stabil olje vil eksporteres så gjennom en ny rørledning fra Gjøa innretningen til Troll Oljerør II (TOR2), og videre til Mongstad. Eksport av rikgass skal gjøres gjennom en ny rørledning fra Gjøa til britisk sokkel og kobler seg på Far North Liquids and Gas Gathering System (FLAGS) sør for Brent innretningen. Gassen transporteres så videre til St. Fergus. Innretningens kraftforbruk dekkes med strøm fra strømnettet på Mongstad. Gjøa vil ha en fast bemanning på 32 personer.

Reservene er planlagt produsert via totalt 13 brønner, ni oljeprodusenter og fire gassprodusenter. Brønnene vil bli boret ut fra fire havbunnsrammer, hver med fire slisser og en havbunnsramme med en slisse. De utvinnbare reservene i Gjøa da utbyggingen ble vedtatt utbygd ble anslått til om lag 40 milliarder Sm³ rikgass og 13 millioner Sm³ olje og kondensat hvorav 9 millioner Sm³ er olje.

I tillegg til produksjonen fra Gjøa, prosesseres også brønnstrømmene fra Vega. Norsk Hydro og senere Statoil er ansvarlig for boring og utvikling av alle undervannsanleggene på Vega, som består av de funnene i Vega i utvinningstillatelse 248 og Vega Sør i utvinningstillatelse 090c, begge nord for Trollfeltet. Feltene utbygges med undervannsbrønner tilknyttet produksjonsinnretningen på Gjøa for prosessering og videreeksport av olje, kondensat og gass.

Plattformen ble designet av Aker Solutions Engineering i perioden 2006-2010.

Flyteren på Gjøa er en halvt nedsenkbar plattform med fire legger, horisontale pongtonger og et stort dekk. Innretningen holdes på plass av et forankringssystem som forbinder innretningen med havbunnen og et anker i enden av hver ankerline. Skroget skal veie om lag 14 200 tonn, dekket ca. 18 000 tonn og boligkvarteret ca. 1 400 tonn. Samlet vekt er om lag 34 000 tonn. Skroget er kvadratisk med 67,5m * 67,5m og høyde på 41m. Dekket er rektangulært med størrelse 104m * 85m, og med høyde 18m. Boligkvarteret (hotellet) vil være noe høyere enn det øvrige dekket, men mest ruvende er et flammetårn med en høyde på 110m.

Gjøa er plassert relativt nær kysten, men har likevel i hovedsak meteorologisk og oseanografiske forhold som andre felter i nordlig del av Nordsjøen. Vanndypet er om lag 360 meter. Kysten påvirker strømforholdene, men for bølger er innflytelsen av land relativt liten. Hundreårs vindhastighet er beregnet til 39 m/s og signifikant hundreårsbølgehøyde er beregnet til 15m.

Havbunnen består av bløt leire i et lag på 1 til 13m. Under er det fast leirrik morene.

Brønnrammene og den enkeltstående satellittbrønnen vil være overtrålbare. Den tynne oljesonen vil være en utfordring med hensyn til boring og komplettering og maksimal utvinning av ressursene. Det vil være ledig kapasitet på brønnrammene til å bore flere brønner på feltet, dersom det vil være behov for det. Oljebrønnene er forberedt for gassløft, men det planlegges ikke for gass- eller vanninjeksjon.

I området er det erfart soner med grunn gass, gruntvann og «mud» vulkaner i tidligere brønner.

Plattformen får kraftforsyning fra land. En 100 kilometer lang vekselstrømskabel til Mongstad sørger for å gi kraften. Overføringsspenningen er på 90 kV og kapasiteten er beregnet til 42 MW. Kraftforsyningen fra land er etablert som et ledd i arbeidet med å få ned Norges samlede utslipp av CO2. Tiltaket er omstridt, dels fordi prisen pr enhet spart utslipp blir stor og dels fordi det gir mangel på elektrisk kraft på deler av vestlandet. De såkalte monstermastene i Hardanger (kraftledning over Hardangerfjorden) er nært knyttet til «elektrifiseringen av sokkelen» som kraftforsyning fra land ofte benevnes som.

Det er også en gassturbin om bord. Den er bygget ut med varmegjenvinning og utnytter varmen fra eksosen til å dekke varmebehovet i prosessene om bord. Selve turbinen driver kompressoren for eksportgass.

I tillegg har plattformen nødgeneratorer dersom strømmen fra land skulle bli borte.

For å kunne opprettholde en levetid som 40 år på plattformen er alle prosessrør i super duplexstål.

Gjøa er plassert i et område med betydelig skipstrafikk like vest av hovedskipsleia langs kysten av Hordaland og Fjordane med påfølgende stor kollisjonsrisiko. Det har vært nødvendig å gjøre flere tiltak for å holde risikoen lav. Blant de risikoreduserende tiltak er flytting av lokasjonen til innretningen, ved å forsterke skroget what is the best way to tenderize meat, etablering av fast beredskapsfartøy på feltet og aktiv bruk av tilgjengelig trafikkovervåking. De ansatte ombord vil forvente å måtte mønstre oftere enn det som har vært vanlig på norsk sokkel.

Det vil bli etablert en sikkerhetssone med radius 500 meter ut fra innretningens ytterpunkter.

Alve · Heidrun · Norne · Skarv · Urd · Snøhvit · Goliat · Tornerose · Aasta Hansteen2

Draugen · Kristin · Mari2 · Mikkel · Njord · Ormen Lange · Tyrihans · Yttergryta · Åsgard

Alvheim · Bøyla · Heimdal · Frigg · Frøy · Odin · Skirne · Vale · Vilje · Volund · Martin Linge2

Brage · Oseberg Øst · Huldra · Tune · Oseberg · Veslefrikk · Oseberg Sør

Knarr · Snorre · Sygna · Gullfaks · Statfjord · Tordis · Gullfaks Sør · Statfjord Nord · Vigdis · Kvitebjørn · Valemon · Statfjord Øst · Visund · Murchison

Fram · Gjøa · Troll olje · Troll gass · Vega

Balder · Grane · Jette · Jotun · Ringhorne Øst

Albuskjell · Eldfisk · Cod · Embla · Edda · Tommeliten Gamma&nbsp Paul Frank Suits Women;· Ekofisk · Tor · Vest Ekofisk

Gina Krog2 · Glitne · Gudrun · Gungne · Rev · Sleipner Vest · Sleipner Øst · Sigyn · Varg · Volve

Edvard Grieg · Johan Sverdrup2 · Ivar Aasen2

Blane · Brynhild · Gyda · Mime · Oselvar · Tambar · Ula

Yme

Hod · Valhall

Casco-class cutter

The Casco class was a large class of United States Coast Guard cutters in commission from the late 1940s through the late 1980s. They saw service as weather reporting ships in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans until the early 1970s, and some saw combat service during the Vietnam War.

Between 1941 and 1946, the United States Navy acquired 35 Barnegat-class small seaplane tenders, designated „AVP“ in the Navys alphanumeric hull numbering system and designed to logistically and administratively support a squadron of flying boats operating from undeveloped areas and, with a substantial anti-air, antisurface, and antisubmarine capability, to escort larger seaplane tenders. Most of them served during World War II, although even during the war the Navy determined the number of Barnegats to be surplus to requirements; as a result, one was completed as a catapult training ship for Navy floatplane pilots (retaining its „AVP“ designation) and four were converted during construction into motor torpedo boat tenders, redesignated „AGP“.

After World War II, the Navy had a surplus of seaplane tenders, and the Coast Guard was looking for ships to serve on ocean stations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans on weather-reporting duties, also performing law enforcement and search and rescue operations as required. The Barnegats were reliable, long-ranged, and seaworthy, and had good habitability, and, suitably modified, were good candidates to meet the Coast Guards requirements; in the words of the Coast Guards assessment of the Barnegats, „The workmanship on the vessel is generally quite superior to that observed on other vessels constructed during the war. The vessel has ample space for stores, living accommodations, ships, offices and recreational facilities. The main engine system is excellent. . . .The performance of the vessel in moderate to heavy seas is definitely superior to that of any other cutter. This vessel can be operated at higher speed without storm damage than other Coast Guard vessels.“

The Navy transferred three of the seaplane tenders outright to the Coast Guard in 1946; they entered service that year and in 1947. The Navy loaned twelve more seaplane tenders, the catapult training ship, and two of the motor torpedo boat tenders to the Coast Guard in 1948, and these entered Coast Guard service in 1948 and 1949; in 1966, the Navy transferred these ships outright to the Coast Guard as well. Of the ships the Coast Guard received, two had been built by the Boston Navy Yard at Boston, Massachusetts, and the rest in the state of Washington: three by Associated Shipbuilders, Inc., at Seattle, ten by Lake Washington Shipyard at Houghton, and three by the Puget Sound Navy Yard at Bremerton.

Once they were accepted into Coast Guard service, a number of changes were made to prepare the ships for ocean-station duty. A balloon shelter was added aft, a hydrographic winch and an oceanographic winch were installed, and spaces on board were devoted to oceanographic equipment.

Under the alphanumeric hull classification system in use at the time, Coast Guard cutters transferred from the Navy retained their Navy classification, with a „W“ added to the beginning of the classification to indicate their Coast Guard subordination. The former seaplane tenders and the former catapult training ship thus all received the classification „WAVP“; the two former motor torpedo boat tenders (AGPs), which reverted to their original „AVP“ designation before transfer to the Coast Guard, also entered Coast Guard service as WAVPs. The only exception was Dexter, which initially was designated WAGC-18, but soon received a WAVP designation like the others.

In 1965, Rockaway, uniquely among the Cascos, was reclassified as an „oceanographic“ ship, WAGO-377.

In 1966 the Coast Guard reclassified all of the Cascos—including Rockaway—as high endurance cutters and changed their classification to „WHEC“. The ships retained the same hull numbers they had had as WAVPs.

Some Cascos later underwent additional classification changes as their roles changed in their final years in service. Unimak was a training ship (WTR-379) from 1969 to 1975 before reverting to her WHEC classification, Gresham became a „meteorological cutter“ (WAGW-387) in 1970, and Rockaway became an „offshore law enforcement vessel“ (WOLE-377) in 1971.

The class was named for USCGC Casco (WAVP-370), later WHEC-370, the unit with the lowest Coast Guard alphanumeric hull number. The three ships transferred outright to the Coast Guard in 1946 were given new names upon commissioning in the Coast Guard, being named after U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury. The 15 ships loaned to the Coast Guard in 1948 retained their original Navy names, and were named for islands, bays, and inlets, around the United States and the then-Territory of Alaska.

The first three ships entered service in 1946 and 1947, with the rest following in 1948 and 1949. Apart from Dexter, which was out of commission for several years in the 1950s, all remained active without break until the late 1960s and early 1970s, and one, Unimak, after a brief period out of commission in the mid-1970s, remained in service until 1988. All saw service as weather-reporting ships on ocean station patrols until the late 1960s and early 1970s except Dexter, which became the Coast Guards United States West Coast training ship after returning to commission in 1958.

The Cascos had a variety of fates. The Navy sank five as targets in 1968 and 1969, and five others were scrapped in the early 1970s. The last survivor in Coast Guard service, Unimak, was scuttled to form an artificial reef.

Seven ships were transferred to South Vietnam in 1971 and 1972. When South Vietnam collapsed at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, six fled to the Philippines, where two were cannibalized for spare parts and the other four entered service in the Philippine Navy, operating until the mid-1980s. The seventh ship, the former Absecon, was captured by North Vietnam, appears to have remained active in the Vietnam People’s Navy into the 1990s, and may remain afloat today as the last surviving Barnegat– or Casco-class ship.

Casco served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Casco (AVP-12) from 1941 to 1947. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1949 and commissioned that year. She was stationed at Boston, Massachusetts, throughout her Coast Guard career, performing ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated WHEC-370 in 1966, she was decommissioned in 1969. The U.S. Navy sank her as a target later that year.

Mackinac served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Mackinac (AVP-13) from 1942 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1949 and commissioned that year. She was stationed at New York City throughout her Coast Guard career, performing ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated WHEC-371 in 1966, she was decommissioned in 1967. The U.S. Navy sank her as a target in 1968.

Humboldt served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Humboldt (AVP-21) from 1941 to 1947. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1949 and commissioned that year. She was stationed at Boston, Massachusetts, from 1949 to 1966 and at Portland, Maine from 1966 to 1969, performing ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic throughout her career. Redesignated WHEC-372 and transferred permanently to the Coast Guard in 1966, she was decommissioned in 1969 and sold for scrapping in 1970.

Matagorda served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Matagorda (AVP-22) from 1941 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1949 and commissioned that year. She was stationed at Boston, Massachusetts, from 1949 to 1954, performing ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic, and at Honolulu, Hawaii, from 1954 to 1967, performing ocean station patrols in the Pacific. Redesignated WHEC-373 in 1966, she was decommissioned in 1967. The U.S. Navy sank her as a target in 1969.

Absecon served as the U.S. Navy catapult training ship USS Absecon (AVP-23) from 1943 to 1947. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1949 and commissioned that year. She was stationed at Norfolk, Virginia, throughout her Coast Guard career, performing ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated WHEC-374 and transferred permanently to the Coast Guard in 1966, she was decommissioned in 1972 and transferred to South Vietnam, becoming the patrol vessel RVNS Phạm Ngũ Lão (HQ-15). Captured by North Vietnam upon the collapse of South Vietnam in 1975, she became the patrol vessel PRVSN Phạm Ngũ Lão (HQ-01) in the Vietnam People’s Navy and may have remained an active unit until into the 1990s. Her current status is unclear, although she may remain afloat as the last surviving Barnegat– or Casco-class ship.

Chincoteague served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Chincoteague (AVP-24) from 1943 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1949 and commissioned that year. She was stationed at Norfolk, Virginia, throughout her Coast Guard career, performing ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated WHEC-375 and transferred permanently to the Coast Guard in 1966, she was decommissioned in 1972 and transferred to South Vietnam, becoming the patrol vessel RVNS Lý Thường Kiệt (HQ-16). Upon the collapse of South Vietnam in 1975, she fled to the Philippines, where she served as the frigate BRP Andrés Bonifacio (PF-7) until 1985.

Coos Bay served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Coos Bay (AVP-25) from 1943 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1949 and commissioned that year

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Away ARBELOA 17 Jerseys

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Away ARBELOA 17 Jerseys

BUY NOW

$266.58
$31.99

. She was stationed at Portland, Maine, throughout her Coast Guard career, performing ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated WHEC-376 and permananelty transferred to the Coast Guard in 1966, she was decommissioned later that year. The U.S. Navy sank her as a target in 1968.

Rockaway served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Rockaway (AVP-29) from 1943 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1948 and commissioned in 1949. She was stationed at Staten Island in New York City throughout her Coast Guard career. Until 1965, her main duty was to serve on ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated as an „oceanographic ship,“ WAGP-377, in 1965, she became more involved in oceanographic survey work. Redesignated WHEC-377 and permanently transferred to the Coast Guard in 1966, she was again reclassified as a „offshore law-enforcement vessel,“ WOLE-377, in 1971. She was decommissioned in 1972 and sold for scrapping.

Half Moon served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Half Moon (AVP-26) from 1943 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1948 and commissioned the same year. She was stationed at Staten Island and Governors Island in New York City throughout her Coast Guard career. Her main duty was to serve on ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated WHEC-378 and permanently transferred to the Coast Guard in 1966, she served one combat tour in Vietnam during the Vietnam War in 1967 as a part of Coast Guard Squadron Three. She was decommissioned in 1969 and sold for scrapping in 1973.

Unimak served as the U.S best baseball jerseys. Navy seaplane tender USS Unimak (AVP-31) from 1943 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1948 and commissioned in 1949. She was stationed at Boston, Massachusetts, from 1949 to 1954; at Cape May, New Jersey, New Jersey, from 1954 to 1972; and at Yorktown, Virginia, from 1972 to 1975, her main duty being to serve on ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Redesignated WHEC-379 and permanently transferred to the Coast Guard in 1966, she reclassified as a training ship and redesignated again as WTR-379 in 1969. She was decommissioned in 1975. Recommissioned in 1977 and again designated WHEC-379, she was stationed at New Bedford, Massachusetts, for the remainder of her Coast Guard career, focusing primarily on fisheries patrols in the Atlantic and law enforcement operations in the Caribbean. She was decommissioned in 1988 and scuttled to form an artificial reef.

Yakutat served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Yakutat (AVP-32) from 1944 to 1946, She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1948 and commissioned the same year. Stationed at Portland, Maine, in 1949 and at New Bedford, Massachusetts, from 1949 to 1971, her main duty was to serve on ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. She was redesignated WHEC-379 and permanently transferred to the Coast Guard in 1966, and served two combat tours in Vietnam during the Vietnam War with Coast Guard Squadron Three, from 1967 to 1968 and in 1970. Transferred to South Vietnam in 1971, she served as RVNS Trần Nhật Duật (HQ-03). Upon the collapse of the South Vietnamese government at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, she fled to the Philippines, where she was cannibalized for spare parts.

Barataria served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Barataria (AVP-33) from 1944 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1948 and commissioned the same year. She was based at Portland, Maine, from 1949 to 1968, primarily responsible for ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. In 1966 she was reclassified as a high endurance cutter, redesignated WHEC-381, and transferred outright to the Coast Guard. She served one combat tour in Vietnam during the Vietnam War from 1967 to 1968 as a part of Coast Guard Squadron Three. She was based at San Francisco, California, from 1968 to 1969, where she carried out for law-enforcement and search-and-rescue duties in the Pacific. She was decommissioned in 1969 and sold for scrapping in 1970.

Bering Strait served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Bering Strait (AVP-34) 1944 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard and in 1948 and commissioned the same year. She served on ocean station patrols in the Pacific Ocean throughout her Coast Guard career, based at Seattle, Washington from 1948 to 1954 and at Honolulu, Hawaii from 1954 to 1971. She was redesignated WHEC-382 and transferred permanently to the Coast Guard in 1966, and served two combat tours in Vietnam during the Vietnam War with Coast Guard Squadron Three, from 1967 to 1968 and in 1970. Transferred to South Vietnam in 1971, she served as RVNS Trần Quang Khải (HQ-02). Upon the collapse of the South Vietnamese government at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, she fled to the Philippines, and served in the Philippine Navy until 1985 as BRP Diego Silang (PF-9).

Castle Rock served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Castle Rock (AVP-35) from 1944 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1948 and commissioned the same year. She was stationed at Boston, Massachusetts, from 1948 to 1967 and at Portland, Maine, from 1967 to 1971, primarily responsible for ocean station patrols in North Atlantic, and spent one combat tour in Vietnam during the Vietnam War with Coast Guard Squadron Three in 1971. She was transferred to South Vietnam in 1971 and served as RVNS Trần Bình Trọng (HQ-05). Upon the collapse of the South Vietnamese government at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, she fled to the Philippines, and served in the Philippine Navy until 1985 as BRP Francisco Dagohoy (PF-10).

Cook Inlet served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Cook Inlet (AVP-36) from 1944 to 1946. She was loaned to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1948 and was commissioned in 1949. Based at Portland, Maine, throughout her Coast Guard career, she was primarily responsible for ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic and spent one combat tour in Vietnam during the Vietnam War with Coast Guard Squadron Three in 1971. She was transferred to South Vietnam in 1971 and served as RVNS Trần Quốc Toản (HQ-06). Upon the collapse of the South Vietnamese government at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, she fled to the Philippines, where she was cannibalized for spare parts.

Dexter served as the U.S. Navy seaplane tender USS Biscayne (AVP-11) from 1941 to 1946. She was transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1946 and commissioned the same year as USCGC Dexter (WAGC-18), soon changed to WAVP-385. Based at Boston, Massachusetts, from 1946 to 1952. she primarily was responsible for ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. Out of commission from 1952 to 1958, she then was based at Alameda, California, from 1958 to 1969, serving as the Coast Guards United States West Coast training ship. She was redesignated WHEC-385 in 1966. She was decommissioned in 1968, and the U.S. Navy sank her as a target later that year.

McCulloch served as the U.S. Navy motor torpedo boat tender USS Wachapreague (AGP-8) from 1944 to 1946, She was transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1946 and commissioned as McCulloch (WAVP-386) the same year. She was based at Boston, Massachusetts, from 1946 to 1966 and at Wilmington, North Carolina, from 1966 to 1972, primarily responsible for ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic. In 1966 she was redesignated WHEC-386. She was transferred to South Vietnam in 1972, and served as RVNS Ngô Quyền (HQ-17). Upon the collapse of the South Vietnamese government at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, she fled to the Philippines, and served in the Philippine Navy until either 1985 or 1990 as BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PF-8).

Gresham served as the U.S. Navy motor torpedo boat tender USS Willoughby (AGP-9) from 1944 to 1946. She was transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard in 1946 and commissioned in 1947 as Gresham (WAVP-387). Based at Alameda, California, from 1947 to 1970, she was primarily responsible for ocean station patrols in the Pacific Ocean, and was redesignated WHEC-387 in 1966. She served one combat tour in Vietnam during the Vietnam War from 1967 to 1968 as a part of Coast Guard Squadron Three. She was based at Norfolk, Virginia, from 1970 to 1973, responsible for ocean station patrols in the North Atlantic, and was reclassified as a meteorological cutter and redesignated WAGW-387 in 1970. She was decommissioned and sold for scrapping in 1973.

basketball – team – building – übungen

sport, vor allem im basketball, verlangen, dass die mitglieder ein team funktioniert als eine einheit zu maximieren, um das spiel zu gewinnen.in der offensive, ein team muss sich mit präzision und in der defensive spieler müssen das vertrauen in ihre kameraden zu helfen

Magista Onda Turf Nike Fussball Gelb Homme Schuhe

Magista Onda Turf 2015-16 Hommes Nike Bequem Fussball Schuhe Gelb

BUY NOW

€215.11
€64.99

.ein team aufbauen, für das gericht ist nicht immer einfach, aber wenn sie in der lage sind, ihre spieler in ein team zu formen, der erfolg wird folgen.
in gruppen von drei spielern trennen.mit verbundenen augen einen spieler.die mit verbundenen augen spieler zwei partner guide sie mündlich durch das labyrinth oder hindernis – parcours ohne körperkontakt.die guides herausforderung zwischen mitteilung und anweisungen gegeben.dies fördert die zusammenarbeit von akteuren und gibt auch der trainer eine chance zu finden und zu erkennen, dass verbale führung spieler schritt in schwierigen situationen.
teile der mannschaft in gruppen von vier bis neun spieler.jede gruppe bildet einen kreis mit einander.spieler kommen und mir einen weiteren spieler ¡¯ in die hand und unterarm.wenn jeder spieler hält auf einem anderen spieler, jeder spieler hat in den kreis wieder und greift auf einen anderen spieler ¡¯ hand und unterarm, so dass jeder spieler ist, hält sich an zwei andere spieler.an diesem punkt sollten die gruppen so aus, als ob sie verfangen sich in einem knoten.durch reden und teamarbeit, die gruppe versucht zu entwirren, selbst ohne verletzung der hand hält.bei der übung wird die gruppe im kreis wieder.
die spieler lassen sich in gruppen von fünf bis acht und bilden einen kreis.team – mitglieder an einem basketball – um den kreis ruft die namen der einzelnen spieler, wenn sie den ball.das objekt ist für jeden spieler, den ball an die einzelnen spieler in dieser gruppe nur einmal.das schafft team verbinden und erlaubt es den spielern, zu lernen, den anderen spielern ¡¯ namen.dies ist besonders von vorteil, mit einer neuen gruppe von spielern.
kluft spieler in gruppen von vier bis sechs.spieler aus einem kleinen kreis mit einem spieler in der mitte.der kreis ist klein genug

evoSPEED 1.2 M FG Puma Schuhe Rote Weiß Hommes Fussball

evoSPEED 1.2 M FG 15-16 Homme Puma Tragbar Schuhe Rote Weiß

BUY NOW

€307.04
€91.99

, dass der spieler in der mitte erreichen können, und an jeder spieler im kreis.ein spieler im kreis beginnt, indem er den namen des spielers im kreis, die die spieler ¡°. ¡± der spieler, „es“, ruft dann noch einen spieler ¡¯ name ihm ¡°. ¡± der spieler in der mitte versuchen, tag der ¡° es ¡± spieler vor der ¡° es ¡± spieler können noch ein name: der titel wird ¡°. ¡± einmal ein spieler erwischt, er änderungen an der spieler in der mitte des kreises.

Świąteczna Zbiórka Żywności

Świąteczna Zbiórka Żywności – ogólnopolska zbiórka żywności organizowana rokrocznie od 1997 roku przez Federację Polskich Banków Żywności na przełomie listopada i grudnia na terenie sklepów. Jej celem jest zebranie żywności, która zostaje następnie przekazana w okresie przedświątecznym osobom najuboższym przez organizacje współpracujące z polskimi bankami żywności, a także zwrócenie uwagi na problemy biedy i niedożywienia w Polsce. Do 2012 roku zebrano łącznie ponad 6400 ton żywności. Kolejna, 18. Świąteczna Zbiórka Żywności, odbywać się będzie w dniach 28 – 30 listopada 2014 roku.

Jednocześnie od 2002 roku Świąteczna Zbiórka Żywności przeprowadzana jest również w sklepach internetowych.

Świąteczna Zbiórka Żywności trwa trzy dni i odbywa się na terenie sklepów football shirt designs, galerii i centrów handlowych oraz super- i hipermarketów. W tym czasie do koszy ustawionych w pobliżu kas lub wyjść ze sklepu zbierana jest żywność. Główny nacisk stawiany jest na produkty z długim terminem przydatności do spożycia, jak np. słodycze, cukier, makaron, dżem, konserwy i olej. Zbiórka przeprowadzana jest również na rynkach hurtowych, gdzie pozyskuje się głównie świeże owoce i warzywa bottle sport.

Za organizację zbiórki na terenie każdego ze sklepów odpowiadają wolontariusze, którzy informują klientów o najbardziej potrzebnych produktach, oraz obierają od nich żywność przy koszach. Są to najczęściej uczniowie szkół, studenci, harcerze, a także pracownicy przedsiębiorstw w ramach wolontariatu pracowniczego. W 2012 roku do organizacji zbiórki włączyło się blisko 50 000 wolontariuszy glass water bottles for fridge. Wolontariuszami podczas zbiórki są również, m.in. aktorzy, piosenkarze i dziennikarze how to tenderize tough steak.

Zebrana żywność trafia po zbiórce do magazynów lokalnych banków żywności, z których zostaje przekazana współpracującym organizacjom, m.in. domom samotnej matki, świetlicom środowiskowym, organizacjom zajmującym się pomaganiem ofiarom przemocy i bezdomnym.

Henry Faulds

Henry Faulds (* 1. Juni 1843 in Beith, Schottland; † 19. März 1930 in Wolstanton) war ein schottischer Mediziner und Missionar, der einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Entwicklung des Fingerabdrucksverfahrens (Daktyloskopie) leistete.

Henry Faulds wurde in Beith (Ayrshire) geboren. Seine Familie hatte zunächst ein ausreichendes Einkommen, doch geriet der Vater in finanzielle Schwierigkeiten, und Henry musste mit 13 Jahren die Schule verlassen, um in Glasgow eine Arbeit anzunehmen. Mit 21 Jahren entschied er sich, ein Studium an der Universität Glasgow aufzunehmen. Zunächst studierte er Mathematik, Logik und das klassische Schrifttum. Später widmete er sich der Medizin am Anderson’s College und erwarb 1868 eine ärztliche Lizenz.

Nach dem Studienabschluss wurde er Missionar für die Schottische Kirche (Church of Scotland), die ihn zunächst nach Britisch Indien schickte, wo er zwei Jahre in einem Armenhospital in Darjeeling wirkte.

Am 23. Juli 1873 wurde er durch ein Schreiben der United Presbyterian Church of Scotland beauftragt, eine Mission in Japan einzurichten. Das Land hatte nach mehr als zwei Jahrhunderten seine selbstgewählte Isolation aufgegeben und intensivierte unter der neuen Meiji-Regierung den Austausch mit der Welt. Im September jenes Jahres schloss Faulds die Ehe mit Isabella Wilson und brach im Dezember auf.

Nach seiner Ankunft in Tokyo begann Faulds mit dem Aufbau eines Krankenhauses (Tsukiji-Hospital, Tsukijibyōin, 築地病院) und einer Ausbildungsstätte für Medizinstudenten im Stadtteil Tsukiji, der Ausländern zugewiesen worden war. Die japanische Chirurgie verdankt ihm die Einführung der aseptischen Maßnahmen von Joseph Lister. 1875 war er bei der Gründung der ersten japanischen Gesellschaft für Blinde (Rakuzenkai, 楽善会) und 1880 bei der Einrichtung der ersten Blindenschule (Rakuzenkai kunmō-in, 楽善会訓盲院) beteiligt. 1882 wurden in seinem Krankenhaus jährlich 15.000 Patienten behandelt.

Neben diesen Aktivitäten verfasste er akademische Artikel und schrieb zwei Reisebücher. Als er seinen Freund, den amerikanischen Archäologen Edward S. Morse, bei dessen Grabung am berühmten Molluskenhaufen von Ōmori begleitete, wurde er auf die Fingerabdrücke in den dort gefundenen Tonscherben aufmerksam. Beim Vergleich von mehreren tausend Fingerabdrücken erkannte er, dass diese für jedes Individuum spezifische Formen zeigten, von Kindheit an gleich bleiben und auch nicht veränderbar sind. Als es kurz danach zu einem Einbruch in sein Krankenhaus kam und ein Mitglied seines Personals in Verdacht geriet, verglich er dessen Fingerabdrücke mit jenen am Ort des Einbruchs. Hierauf wurde der Festgenommene wieder freigesetzt. Unter den ausländischen Medizinern in Japan war der deutsche Pathologe Friedrich Karl Wilhelm Dönitz, der die Bedeutung der Entdeckung von Faulds erkannte und das Verfahren in die japanische Forensik einführte.

Nach eingehenden Untersuchungen der menschlichen Hautleisten schickte Faulds 1880 einen Brief an die Zeitschrift Nature, in dem er vorschlug, Fingerabdrücke am Tatort zur Identifikation der Täter zu nutzen und dafür alle zehn Finger zu daktyloskopieren. Im folgenden Monat schrieb Sir William James Herschel, ein Kolonialbeamter in Bengalen, an die Zeitschrift und teilte mit water belt running, dass er Fingerabdrücke seit 1860 nutze, um die Empfänger von Pensionszahlungen zu unterscheiden und so Betrug zu vermeiden. Es folgten Jahrzehnte einer erbitterten Fehde um die Ehre der Erstentdeckung.

Wegen diverser Streitigkeiten bezüglich der Führung des Hospitals in Tokyo kehrte Faulds 1886 nach Großbritannien zurück. Scotland Yard lehnte sein Konzept ab. Eines der Hauptprobleme war das Fehlen eines Klassifikationssystems, was den Vergleich von Abdrücken am Tatort mit den bereits registrierten Abdrücken nicht praktikabel machte.

Faulds praktizierte als Chirurg, zunächst in London, später in Fenton (Stoke-on-Trent) replica vintage football shirts. 1922 verkaufte er seine Praxis und zog nach Wolstanton, wo er im Alter von 86 Jahren starb – tief verbittert wegen der ihm versagten Anerkennung.

Das Verfahren der Identifikation von Personen anhand von Fingerabdrücken wurde während der 60er Jahre des 19. Jhs. erstmals von William James Herschel in Indien genutzt. Der Vorschlag, dieses in der Forensik zu nutzen, kam 1880 von Henry Faulds. Der Engländer Francis Galton (1822–1911), der Faulds Idee übernahm, ohne auf diesen hinzuweisen, sorgte mit einem Klassifizierungssystem für die praktische polizeiliche Nutzung.

Strzelecki Desert

The Strzelecki Desert /tʃəˈlɛtski/ is located in the Far North Region of South Australia, South West Queensland and western New South Wales. It is positioned in the northeast of the Lake Eyre Basin, and north of the Flinders Ranges. Two other deserts occupy the Lake Eyre Basin—the Tirari Desert and the Simpson Desert.

The desert covers 80 thermos drink bottle,250 km2 making it the seventh largest desert in Australia steel drinking bottle. The Dingo Fence, Birdsville Track how to tenderize steak without meat tenderizer, the Strzelecki Track, the Diamantina River, Cooper Creek and the Strzelecki Creek all pass through the Desert.

The desert is characterised by extensive dune fields and is home to three wilderness areas. It was named after the Polish explorer Paweł Edmund Strzelecki by Charles Sturt. He was the first non-indigenous explorer in the area, followed closely by the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition.

Much of the desert is preserved within the Strzelecki Regional Reserve in South Australia. Parts of the eastern sections of the desert are protected by the Sturt National Park in New South Wales. A population of the endangered Dusky Hopping Mouse lives in the desert.

The Cobbler Sandhills near Lake Blanche is a section of the Strzelecki Desert where the dunes are replaced by small eroded knolls, mostly with vegetation on the top. This area provided great difficulty for early attempts to cross the desert by car, and the name relates to the sheep which were the most difficult to shear, known as the „cobblers“.

Coordinates:

techniken, tritt ein fußball weit

sie brauchen nicht die expertise von david beckham tritt ein fußball

Real Madrid BALE Trikots Frau Fussball Grau

Real Madrid 15-16 11 (Verein ) Damen BALE Fussball Winter T-shirt Grau

BUY NOW

€226.22
€29.99

.aber sie müssen trainieren, intensiv und konzentriert sich auf die techniken, die ihre munter macht.ausführung der mächtige tritt verlangt die beteiligung ihrer vollen körper, nicht nur ihre beine und füße und erfordert auch geistige engagement.
gute platzierung der körper, beine und füße können für einen kraftvollen tritt, laut der expertin fußball – website.ihre unterstützung fuß im einklang mit dem fußball zu ball flach halten und mehr abstand.sie sollten sich den oberkörper nach vorn, da sie tritt, um kraft für den ball.umgekehrt, wenn sie wollen, dass der ball höher in der luft, lehnen sie sich zurück, wie sie in den oberkörper.nach kontaktaufnahme mit dem ball, sie mit ihren kick, mit einen umfassenden antrag.tritt der fußball mit der spitze der fuß oder mit der innenseite, anstatt den zeh, der eine kleinere fläche.
das fußball – training guide zitate fußballstar pelé, der sagte: „fußball ist zu 90 prozent denken und 10 prozent laufen.“ die gleiche maxime gilt für fußball – spaß.“ihre gedanken machen, kraftvoller und präziser treten.wenn sie weg sind vom feld, schreiben sie ein bestimmtes ziel zu treten.dann brainstorming der einfache schritte nötig sind, um das ziel zu erreichen.sie selbst werde durch diese schritte erfolgreich.geistig überprüfung dieser bewegungen, bis sie kommen automatisch.während sie spielen, malen sie sich ihre platzierung und den kick, um ihnen zu helfen, tritt der fußball weiter.
die halbinsel tiburon fußball – club listet eine vielzahl von übungen für fußballspieler zu verbessern, kraft, präzision und gesamtleistung.zunächst mit einem coach oder ein anderer spieler prüfen ihre position halten sie ihren körper richtig.sie können in der praxis abstand treten von 20 bis 50 meter entfernt steht ein spieler zu spieler und getreten.praxis treten fußbälle, bewegt sich noch.munter weiter eier hilft fußballspieler war der ball ist die dynamik und kann dazu führen, dass das nicht mehr abstand.kick – eier aus verschiedenen blickwinkeln und beachten sie die tritte weiter aufs feld.eine weitere herausforderung, treten mit ihren versuchen marktbeherrschender bein oder praxis tritt unter defensive druck von anderen spielern

Mexiko O PERALTA Damen Schwarz T-shirt Fussball

Mexiko 2015-16 (Nationalmannschafts) 19 Damen O PERALTA Anti-Shrink Geschenk Trikots Schwarz

BUY NOW

€226.22
€29.99

.

P4-t-Bu

farblose Kristalle

fest

237 °C unter Zersetzung

leicht löslich in unpolaren Lösungsmitteln, wie Tetrahydrofuran, Diethylether, n-Hexan, Benzol und Toluol, sowie in protischen Lösungsmitteln unter Protonierung

Gefahr

P4t-Bu ist ein einfach zugänglicher Vertreter aus der Gruppe der neutralen, peralkylierten sterisch gehinderten Polyaminophosphazene, die extrem starke, aber nur sehr schwache nucleophile Basen darstellen. P4t-Bu kann auch als tetrameres Triaminoiminophosphoran der Grundstruktur (H2N)3P=N-H aufgefasst werden. Die homologe Reihe von P1– bis P7-Polyaminophosphazenen der allgemeinen Formel






[


(



R



2




1




N



)



3




P


=


N







]



x








(



R



2




1




N



)



3






x




P


=


N



R



2







{\displaystyle \mathrm {[(R_{2}^{1}N)_{3}P=N-]_{x}-(R_{2}^{1}N)_{3-x}P=NR^{2}} }


mit bevorzugt Methylgruppen als R1, einer Methylgruppe oder tert. Butylgruppe als R2 und geradzahliges x zwischen 0 und 6 (P4t-Bu: R1 = Me, R2 = t-Bu und x = 3) ist durch Arbeiten von Reinhard Schwesinger erschlossen worden; die erhaltenen Phosphazenbasen werden daher auch als Schwesinger-Superbasen bezeichnet.

Die konvergente Synthese von P4t-Bu geht aus von Phosphorpentachlorid (1) und führt im Zweig [A] zunächst via [A1] über das nicht isolierte Chlor(dimethylamino) phosphoniumchlorid (2) zum gut charakterisierbaren Aminotris(dimethylamino)phosphoniumtetrafluoroborat (3) und weiter via [A2] zum flüssigen Iminotris(dimethylamino)phosphoran (4)

und im Zweig [B] mit Phosphorpentachlorid und tert-Butylammoniumchlorid zum tert-Butylphosphorimid-trichlorid (5)

Die Reaktion [C] von überschüssigem (4) mit (5) liefert mit 93%iger Ausbeute das Hydrochlorid des Zielprodukts P4t-Bu (6),

das ebenfalls in das Tetrafluoroboratsalz (7) überführt wird, aus dem die freie Base (8) mit Kaliummethanolat/Natriumamid oder mit Kaliumamid in flüssigem Ammoniak fast quantitativ gewonnen werden kann. Die Überführung der hygroskopischen und gut wasserlöslichen Hydrochloride und der flüssigen freien Basen in die in Wasser schwerlöslichen und festen Tetrafluoroborate erleichtert die Handhabung der Substanzen erheblich.

Die relativ unkomplizierte konvergente Synthese mit einfach zugänglichen Reaktanden und sehr guten Ausbeuten der Zwischenstufen machen P4t-Bu zu einer interessanten Phosphazen-Superbase.

P4t-Bu ist mit einem extrapolierten pKa-Wert von 42.1 in Acetonitril eine der stärksten neutralen Stickstoffbasen und im Vergleich zu der starken Base DBU mit einem pKa-Wert von 24.3 um 18 Größenordnungen stärker basisch. Die Verbindung ist sehr gut in unpolaren Lösungsmitteln, wie z. B. Hexan, Toluol oder Tetrahydrofuran löslich und ist meist als 0,8 bis 1 molare Lösung in Hexan im Handel. Protonierung bereits in schwach sauren Medien erzeugt das extrem delokalisierte und weiche Kation P4t-Bu-H-Kation und bewirkt neben einem sehr starken Solubilisierungseffekt auch eine extreme Beschleunigung von Additionsreaktionen bereits bei Temperaturen unter -78 °C.

Die außerordentlich hohe Basizität bei geringer Nukleophilie verdankt P4t-Bu seiner sehr hohen sterischen Hinderung und der Beteiligung vieler Donorgruppen an der Konjugation in der räumlich anspruchsvollen Struktur des durch Protonierung gebildeten Kations.

Die Base P4t-Bu ist ein extrem hygroskopischer Feststoff, der bis 120 °C thermisch und gegen (trockenen) Sauerstoff und Basen chemisch stabil ist. Spuren von Wasser und protischen Verunreinigungen können durch Zugabe von Bromethan beseitigt werden. Die Base ist sowohl sehr hydrophil, als auch sehr lipophil und lässt sich über die Bildung des schwerlöslichen Tetrafluoroboratsalzes leicht und nahezu vollständig aus Reaktionsgemischen wiedergewinnen.

Wegen seiner äußerst schwachen Lewis-Basizität unterdrückt das Kation von P4t-Bu typische Nebenreaktionen von Metallorganylen, wie z. B. Aldolkondensationen, wie sie durch Lithiumamide wie Lithiumdiisopropylamid (LDA) verursacht werden können.

Die neutrale Superbase P4t-Bu ist ionischen Basen überlegen, wenn diese empfindlich sind gegen Oxidation oder Nebenreaktionen, wie z. B. Acylierung, Löslichkeitsprobleme verursachen oder Lewis-Säure-katalysierte Nebenreaktionen bewirken, wie z. B. Aldolreaktionen, Epoxid-Ringöffnungen usw cheap football shirt.

Die Dehydrohalogenierung von n-Alkylbromiden, wie z. B. von 1-Bromoctan mit P4t-Bu liefert 1-Octen in fast quantitativer Ausbeute (96 %) unter milden Bedingungen gegenüber dem System Kalium-tert-butanolat/18-Krone-6 mit lediglich 75 % Ausbeute.

Alkylierungsreaktionen an schwach aciden Methylengruppen small waterproof bag for swimming, z. B. bei Carbonsäureestern oder Nitrilen, verlaufen mit hoher Ausbeute und Selektivität. So wird bei der Umsetzung von 8-Phenylmenthylphenylacetat mit Iodethan in Gegenwart von P4t-Bu ausschließlich das Monoethylderivat in der Z-Konfiguration (95 %) in 95%iger Ausbeute erhalten.

1,2-Ethandinitril reagiert mit Iodethan in Gegenwart von P4t-Bu in 98%iger Ausbeute zum Tetraethylderivat used electric meat tenderizer for sale, ohne dass es dabei zur Thorpe-Ziegler-Reaktion unter Bildung eines cyclischen α-Ketonitrils kommt.

Trifluormethylierung von Ketonen, wie z. B. Benzophenon gelingt auch mit dem sehr reaktionsträgen Fluoroform (HFC-23) in Gegenwart von P4t-Bu und Tris(trimethylsilyl)amin bei Raumtemperatur in guten Ausbeuten bis 84 %.

Intramolekulare Cyclisierung von ortho-Alkinylphenylethern führt in Gegenwart von P4t-Bu unter milden Bedingungen ohne Metallkatalysatoren zu substituierten Benzofuranen.

Die extreme Basizität von P4t-Bu legte bereits früh die Vermutung nahe, dass sich diese Superbase als Initiator für die anionische Polymerisation eignen sollte. Aus Methylmethacrylat mit dem Ethylacetat/P4t-Bu-Initiatorsystem konnte im Lösungsmittel THF Polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) mit enger Polydispersität und Molmassen bis 40,000 g·mol−1 erhalten werden.

Anionische Polymerisation von Ethylenoxid mit dem Initiatorsystem n-Butyllithium/P4t-Bu liefert definierte Polyethylenoxide mit niedriger Polydispersität.

Cyclische Siloxane, wie z. B. Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxan oder Decamethylcyclopentasiloxan können ebenfalls mit katalytischen Mengen von P4t-Bu und Wasser oder Silanolen als Initiator unter guter Molmassenkontrolle zu thermisch sehr stabilen Polysiloxanen mit Zerfallstemperaturen > 450 °C polymerisiert werden. Wegen seiner extremen Basizität absorbiert P4t-Bu begierig Wasser und Kohlendioxid, die jedoch beide die anionische Polymerisation inhibieren. Erhitzen auf Temperaturen > 100 °C zur Entfernung von CO2 und Wasser setzt die anionische Polymerisation wieder in Gang.

Die extreme Hygroskopie der Phosphazenbase P4t-Bu als Substanz und in Lösungen erfordert enormen Aufwand bei Lagerung und Handhabung und steht ihrer breiteren Verwendung entgegen.

Lateral computing

Lateral computing is a lateral thinking approach to solving computing problems. Lateral thinking has been made popular by Edward de Bono. This thinking technique is applied to generate creative ideas and solve problems. Similarly, by applying lateral-computing techniques to a problem, it can become much easier to arrive at a computationally inexpensive, easy to implement, efficient, innovative or unconventional solution.

The traditional or conventional approach to solving computing problems is to either build mathematical models or have an IF- THEN -ELSE structure. For example, a brute-force search is used in many chess engines, but this approach is computationally expensive and sometimes may arrive at poor solutions. It is for problems like this that lateral computing can be useful to form a better solution.

A simple problem of truck backup can be used for illustrating lateral-computing[clarification needed] cheap custom football shirts.[citation needed] This is one of the difficult tasks for traditional computing techniques, and has been efficiently solved by the use of fuzzy logic (which is a lateral computing technique).[citation needed] Lateral-computing sometimes arrives at a novel solution for particular computing problem by using the model of how living beings, such as how humans, ants, and honeybees, solve a problem; how pure crystals are formed by annealing, or evolution of living beings or quantum mechanics etc.[clarification needed]

Chess position analysis can be used to illustrate the logical thinking. The following board position describes a chess problem which has to be solved with two moves.

The white has several options to make a move and checkmate the black. The move Rd5 × Rd7 or Rf7 × Rd7 will immediately provide material advantage to white. There are similar moves which capture pieces and provide immediate material advantages to the white. But a knight move Nc6 which does not provide any material advantage, provides a solution for checkmate for black in two moves.

This is an example which illustrates the use of logical thinking. The logical thinking in chess progresses by evaluating the immediate material gain in each move. This will result in a solution which will require more number of moves or failure to checkmate. However, the not so obvious move of knight results in a very powerful checkmate. Even though this move does not look logical, it is the solution to two-move checkmate problem. A computer programmed to play chess might miss out some good opportunities if it does a material-based search to find moves. Several attempts have been made to build the powerful chess computers in history. But these chess computers have been defeated by Grandmaster human chess players.

The attempts to use logic programming such as prolog[clarification needed] to represent knowledge and build artificial intelligent systems has not provided the anticipated thrust to solving interesting problems. The lack of generalization and learning capability of these systems and exponential growth of the IF-THEN ELSE rules has made this approach unpopular. An example to illustrate[citation needed] the failure of the rule-based system is the following flawed proof:

This would imply that 4 = 5, which a wrong result. While taking the square roots, the step of considering the signs has been missed. This has resulted in an absurd outcome. A rule-based system, even if it missed a simple rule in its database may yield such an unacceptable output.

Another interesting mathematical proof gone wrong is as follows:

If a = 1, then we get an absurd result of 1 = 2

Lateral thinking is technique for creative thinking for solving problems. The brain as center of thinking has a self-organizing information system. It tends to create patterns and traditional thinking process uses them to solve problems. The lateral thinking technique proposes to escape from this patterning to arrive at better solutions through new ideas. Provocative use of information processing is the basic underlying principle of lateral thinking,

The provocative operator (PO) is something which characterizes lateral thinking. Its function is to generate new ideas by provocation and providing escape route from old ideas. It creates a provisional arrangement of information.

Water logic is contrast to traditional or rock logic. Water logic has boundaries which depends on circumstances and conditions while rock logic has hard boundaries. Water logic my football shirt, in someways, resembles fuzzy logic.

Lateral computing does a provocative use of information processing similar to lateral-thinking. This is explained with the use of evolutionary computing which is a very useful lateral-computing technique. The evolution proceeds by change and selection. While random mutation provides change, the selection is through survival of the fittest. The random mutation works as a provocative information processing and provides a new avenue for generating better solutions for the computing problem.

Lateral computing takes the analogies from real-world examples such as:

Differentiating factors of „lateral computing“:

It is very hard to draw a clear boundary between conventional and lateral computing. Over a period of time, some unconventional computing techniques become integral part of mainstream computing. So there will always be an overlap between conventional and lateral computing. It will be tough task classifying a computing technique as a conventional or lateral computing technique as shown in the figure. The boundaries are fuzzy and one may approach with fuzzy sets.

Lateral computing is a fuzzy set of all computing techniques which use unconventional computing approach. Hence Lateral computing includes those techniques which use semi-conventional or hybrid computing. The degree of membership for lateral computing techniques is greater than 0 in the fuzzy set of unconventional computing techniques.

The following brings out some important differentiators for lateral computing.

Parallel computing focuses on improving the performance of the computers/algorithms through the use of several computing elements (such as processing elements). The computing speed is improved by using several computing elements. Parallel computing is an extension of conventional sequential computing. However, in lateral computing, the problem is solved using unconventional information processing whether using a sequential or parallel computing.

There are several computing techniques which fit the Lateral computing paradigm. Here is a brief description of some of the Lateral Computing techniques:

Swarm intelligence (SI) is the property of a system whereby the collective behaviors of (unsophisticated) agents, interacting locally with their environment, cause coherent functional global patterns to emerge.[clarification needed] SI provides a basis with which it is possible to explore collective (or distributed) problem solving without centralized control or the provision of a global model.

One interesting swarm intelligent technique is the Ant Colony algorithm:

Agents are encapsulated computer systems that are situated in some environment and are capable of flexible, autonomous action in that environment in order to meet their design objectives.[clarification needed] Agents are considered to be autonomous (independent, not-controllable), reactive (responding to events), pro-active (initiating actions of their own volition), and social (communicative). Agents vary in their abilities: they can be static or mobile, or may or may not be intelligent. Each agent may have its own task and/or role. Agents, and multi-agent systems, are used as a metaphor to model complex distributed processes. Such agents invariably need to interact with one another in order to manage their inter-dependencies. These interactions involve agents cooperating, negotiating and coordinating with one another.

Agent-based systems are computer programs that try to simulate various complex phenomena via virtual „agents“ that represent the components of a business system. The behaviors of these agents are programmed with rules that realistically depict how business is conducted. As widely varied individual agents interact in the model, the simulation shows how their collective behaviors govern the performance of the entire system – for instance, the emergence of a successful product or an optimal schedule. These simulations are powerful strategic tools for „what-if“ scenario analysis: as managers change agent characteristics or „rules,“ the impact of the change can be easily seen in the model output

By analogy, a computational grid is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end computational capabilities. The applications of grid computing are in:

The autonomic nervous system governs our heart rate and body temperature, thus freeing our conscious brain from the burden of dealing with these and many other low-level, yet vital, functions. The essence of autonomic computing is self-management, the intent of which is to free system administrators from the details of system operation and maintenance.

Four aspects of autonomic computing are:

This is a grand challenge promoted by IBM.

Optical computing is to use photons rather than conventional electrons for computing. There are quite a few instances of optical computers and successful use of them.[clarification needed] The conventional logic gates use semiconductors, which use electrons for transporting the signals. In case of optical computers, the photons in a light beam are used to do computation.

There are numerous advantages of using optical devices for computing such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, large bandwidth, etc.

DNA computing uses strands of DNA to encode the instance of the problem and to manipulate them using techniques commonly available in any molecular biology laboratory in order to simulate operations that select the solution of the problem if it exists.

Since the DNA molecule is also a code, but is instead made up of a sequence of four bases that pair up in a predictable manner, many scientists have thought about the possibility of creating a molecular computer.[clarification needed] These computers rely on the much faster reactions of DNA nucleotides binding with their complements, a brute force method that holds enormous potential for creating a new generation of computers that would be 100 billion times faster than today’s fastest PC. DNA computing has been heralded as the „first example of true nanotechnology“,[citation needed] and even the „start of a new era“,[citation needed] which forges an unprecedented link between computer science and life science.

Example applications of DNA computing are in solution for the Hamiltonian path problem which is a known NP[clarification needed] complete one. The number of required lab operations using DNA grows linearly with the number of vertices of the graph.[clarification needed] Molecular algorithms have been reported that solves the cryptograhic problem in a polynomial number of steps. As known, factoring large numbers is a relevant problem in many cryptographic applications.

In a quantum computer, the fundamental unit of information (called a quantum bit or qubit), is not binary but rather more quaternary in nature. This qubit property arises as a direct consequence of its adherence to the laws of quantum mechanics, which differ radically from the laws of classical physics. A qubit can exist not only in a state corresponding to the logical state 0 or 1 as in a classical bit, but also in states corresponding to a blend or quantum superposition of these classical states. In other words, a qubit can exist as a zero, a one, or simultaneously as both 0 and 1, with a numerical coefficient representing the probability for each state. A quantum computer manipulates qubits by executing a series of quantum gates, each a unitary transformation acting on a single qubit or pair of qubits. In applying these gates in succession, a quantum computer can perform a complicated unitary transformation to a set of qubits in some initial state.

Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are making it possible to build truly reconfigurable computers. The computer architecture is transformed by on the fly reconfiguration of the FPGA circuitry. The optimal matching between architecture and algorithm improves the performance of the reconfigurable computer. The key feature is hardware performance and software flexibility.

For several applications such as fingerprint matching, DNA sequence comparison, etc., reconfigurable computers have been shown to perform several orders of magnitude better than conventional computers.

The Simulated annealing algorithm is designed by looking at how the pure crystals form from a heated gaseous state while the system is cooled slowly. The computing problem is redesigned as a simulated annealing exercise and the solutions are arrived at. The working principle of simulated annealing is borrowed from metallurgy: a piece of metal is heated (the atoms are given thermal agitation), and then the metal is left to cool slowly. The slow and regular cooling of the metal allows the atoms to slide progressively their most stable („minimal energy“) positions. (Rapid cooling would have „frozen“ them in whatever position they happened to be at that time.) The resulting structure of the metal is stronger and more stable. By simulating the process of annealing inside a computer program, it is possible to find answers to difficult and very complex problems. Instead of minimizing the energy of a block of metal or maximizing its strength, the program minimizes or maximizes some objective relevant to the problem at hand.

One of the main components of „Lateral-computing“ is soft computing which approaches problems with human information processing model. The Soft Computing technique comprises Fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, evolutionary-computing, machine learning and probabilistic-chaotic computing.

Instead of solving a problem by creating a non-linear equation model of it, the biological neural network analogy is used for solving the problem. The neural network is trained like a human brain to solve a given problem. This approach has become highly successful in solving some of the pattern recognition problems.

The genetic algorithm (GA) resembles the natural evolution to provide a universal optimization. Genetic algorithms start with a population of chromosomes which represent the various solutions. The solutions are evaluated using a fitness function and a selection process determines which solutions are to be used for competition process. These algorithms are highly successful in solving search and optimization problems. The new solutions are created using evolutionary principles such as mutation and crossover.

Fuzzy logic is based on the fuzzy sets concepts proposed by Lotfi Zadeh. The degree of membership concept is central to fuzzy sets. The fuzzy sets differ from crisp sets since they allow an element to belong to a set to a degree (degree of membership). This approach finds good applications for control problems. The Fuzzy logic has found enormous applications and has already found a big market presence in consumer electronics such as washing machines, microwaves, mobile phones, Televisions, Camcoders etc.

Probabilistic computing engines, e.g. use of probabilistic graphical model such as Bayesian network. Such computational techniques are referred to as randomization, yielding probabilistic algorithms. When interpreted as a physical phenomenon through classical statistical thermodynamics, such techniques lead to energy savings that are proportional to the probability p with which each primitive computational step is guaranteed to be correct (or equivalently to the probability of error, (1–p). Chaotic Computing is based on the chaos theory.

Fractal Computing are objects displaying self-similarity at different scales. Fractals generation involves small iterative algorithms. The fractals have dimensions greater than their topological dimensions. The length of the fractal is infinite and size of it cannot be measured. It is described by an iterative algorithm unlike a Euclidean shape which is given by a simple formula. There are several types of fractals and Mandelbrot sets are very popular.

Fractals have found applications in image processing, image compression music generation, computer games etc. Mandelbrot set is a fractal named after its creator. Unlike the other fractals, even though the Mandelbrot set is self-similar at magnified scales, the small scale details are not identical to the whole. I.e., the Mandelbrot set is infinitely complex. But the process of generating it is based on an extremely simple equation. The Mandelbrot set M is a collection of complex numbers. The numbers Z which belong to M are computed by iteratively testing the Mandelbrot equation. C is a constant. If the equation converges for chosen Z discount electric shavers, then Z belongs to M. Mandelbrot equation:

A Randomized algorithmmakes arbitrary choices during its execution. This allows a savings in execution time at the beginning of a program. The disadvantage of this method is the possibility that an incorrect solution will occur. A well-designed randomized algorithm will have a very high probability of returning a correct answer. The two categories of randomized algorithms are:

Consider an algorithm to find the kth element of an array. A deterministic approach would be to choose a pivot element near the median of the list and partition the list around that element. The randomized approach to this problem would be to choose a pivot at random, thus saving time at the beginning of the process. Like approximation algorithms, they can be used to more quickly solve tough NP-complete problems. An advantage over the approximation algorithms, however, is that a randomized algorithm will eventually yield an exact answer if executed enough times

Human beings/animals learn new skills, languages/concepts. Similarly, machine learning algorithms provide capability to generalize from training data. There are two classes of Machine Learning (ML):

One of the well known machine learning technique is Back Propagation Algorithm. This mimics how humans learn from examples. The training patters are repeatedly presented to the network. The error is back propagated and the network weights are adjusted using gradient descent. The network converges through several hundreds of iterative computations.

This is another class of highly successful machine learning techniques successfully applied to tasks such as text classification, speaker recognition, image recognition etc.

There are several successful applications of lateral-computing techniques. Here is a small set of applications that illustrates lateral computing:

Above is a review of lateral-computing techniques. Lateral-computing is based on the lateral-thinking approach and applies unconventional techniques to solve computing problems. While, most of the problems are solved in conventional techniques, there are problems which require lateral-computing. Lateral-computing provides advantage of computational efficiency, low cost of implementation, better solutions when compared to conventional computing for several problems. The lateral-computing successfully tackles a class of problems by exploiting tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. Lateral-computing techniques which use the human like information processing models have been classified as „Soft Computing“ in literature.

Lateral-computing is valuable while solving numerous computing problems whose mathematical models are unavailable.[citation needed] They provide a way of developing innovative solutions resulting in smart systems with Very High Machine IQ (VHMIQ). This article has traced the transition from lateral-thinking to lateral-computing. Then several lateral-computing techniques have been described followed by their applications. Lateral-computing is for building new generation artificial intelligence based on unconventional processing.

1995 Baltimore Orioles season

The 1995 Baltimore Orioles season was a season in American baseball. It involved the Orioles finishing 3rd in the American League East with a record of 71 wins and 73 losses.

The Orioles scored 704 runs (4.89 per game) and allowed only 640 runs (4.44 per game), second only to the Cleveland Indians. The Orioles pitching staff also allowed the fewest hits in the Majors (1,165), the most complete games (19) and the most shutouts in the AL (10).

On Wednesday, September 6, 1995, many baseball fans within and out of the United States tuned into cable TV network ESPN (and called by Chris Berman and Buck Martinez) to watch Ripken surpass Lou Gehrig’s 56-year-old record for consecutive games played water bottle safety. The game, between the Orioles and the California Angels all sports jerseys, still ranks as one of the network’s most watched baseball games. Cal’s children, Rachel and Ryan, threw out the ceremonial first balls.

Both President Bill Clinton and Vice-President Al Gore were at the game. President Clinton was in the WBAL local radio broadcast booth when Ripken hit a home run in the fourth inning, and called the home run over the air. When the game became official after the Angels‘ half of the fifth inning, the numerical banners that displayed Ripken’s streak on the wall of the B&O Warehouse outside the stadium’s right field wall changed from 2130 to 2131.

Everyone attending (including the opposing Angels and all four umpires) erupted with a standing ovation lasting more than 22 minutes, one of the longest standing ovations for any athlete best running water bottle belt; ESPN did not go to a commercial break during the entire ovation. During the ovation, Cal was convinced by his teammates to take an impromptu victory lap around the entire Camden Yards to shake hands and give high-fives to the fans, creating a highlight reel moment that’s been played repeatedly over the years since then.

Infielders

Other batters

Coaches

Note: Pos = Position; G = Games played; AB = At Bats; H = Hits; Avg. = Batting Average; HR = Home Runs; RBI = Runs Batted In

Note: G = Games played; AB = At Bats; H = Hits; Avg. = Batting Average; HR = Home Runs; RBI = Runs Batted In